School of Chemistry

Search site

Lisa Whalley

NCAS Scientist
Member of the Atmospheric and Planetary Chemistry group

Contact details

Room: 2.52
Tel: +44 (0)113 3436594


Atmospheric chemistry
Field measurements of hydroxyl and other radicals
Field measurements of photolysis rates
Modelling using the Master Chemical Mechanism
Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

Photograph of Lisa Whalley

Research interests

My research interest lies in understanding the chemistry responsible for the processing of trace gases in the atmosphere through field observation and comparison of these observations with detailed chemistry models based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM).

The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the atmosphere, responsible for the removal of many man-made and natural emissions. Using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) we have made measurements of OH on over 20 field projects in a variety of environments including Polar, Urban, Rural and Tropical regions with the aim of identifying the important chemical processing occurring in these key global areas.

At the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, representative of a remote marine location, measurements and subsequent modelling activities highlighted the role of low-level halogen species over the ocean in modifying the oxidising capacity. Whilst in the rainforest in Borneo, measurement and model comparisons revealed a large, and as yet, unknown, OH source. In London, nitrous acid, HONO, has been identified as a dominant source of OH throughout the day.

Alongside OH measurements, we have developed methodologies to use LIF for detection of other radical species, such as iodine monoxide, IO, and organic peroxy radicals, RO2. We are also involved in the development of new instrumentation and algorithms for determining photolysis rates.

Useful links

FAGE group   
National Centre for Atmospheric Science   
Atmospheric measurement facility   


Ye C, Heard DE, Whalley LK Evaluation of Novel Routes for NOxFormation in Remote Regions Environmental Science and Technology 51 7442-7449, 2017
View abstract

Assaf E, Sheps L, Whalley L, Heard D, Tomas A, Schoemaecker C, Fittschen C The Reaction between CH3O2and OH Radicals: Product Yields and Atmospheric Implications Environmental Science and Technology 51 2170-2177, 2017
View abstract

Hansen RF, Lewis TR, Graham L, Whalley LK, Seakins PW, Heard DE, Blitz MA OH production from the photolysis of isoprene-derived peroxy radicals: Cross-sections, quantum yields and atmospheric implications Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 19 2332-2345, 2017
View abstract

Lakey PSJ, Berkemeier T, Krapf M, Dommen J, Steimer SS, Whalley LK, Ingham T, Baeza-Romero MT, Pöschl U, Shiraiwa M, Ammann M, Heard DE The effect of viscosity and diffusion on the HO2uptake by sucrose and secondary organic aerosol particles Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 13035-13047, 2016
View abstract

Bohn B, Heard DE, Mihalopoulos N, Plass-Dülmer C, Schmitt R, Whalley LK Characterisation and improvement of j(O¹D) filter radiometers Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9 3455-3466, 2016
View abstract

Stone D, Whalley LK, Ingham T, Edwards PM, Cryer DR, Brumby CA, Seakins PW, Heard DE Measurement of OH reactivity by laser flash photolysis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9 2827-2844, 2016
View abstract

MacKenzie R, Tomlin A, Kleffmann J, Karl T, Hewitt CN, Heard D, Sartelet K, Sommariva R, Baltensperger U, Harrison R, Madronich S, McFiggans G, Pandis S, Wenger J, Kiendler-Scharr A, Donahue NM, Dunmore R, Doherty R, Moller S, Kilbane-Dawe I, McDonald B, Wahner A, Zhu S, Presto A, Kalberer M, Hort M, Lee J, Nikolova I, Jimenez JL, Whalley L, Alam MS, Skouloudis A Numerical modelling strategies for the urban atmosphere: general discussion Faraday Discussions 189 635-660, 2016

Geiger F, Pope F, MacKenzie R, Brune W, Monks PS, Bloss W, Fuller G, Moussiopoulos N, Hort M, Tomlin A, Presto A, Van Pinxteren D, Vlachou A, Heard D, Hewitt CN, Baltensperger U, Lewis A, Querol X, Kim S, Hamilton J, Sommariva R, McFiggans G, Harrison R, Jimenez JL, Cross E, Wenger J, Pandis S, Kiendler-Scharr A, Donahue NM, Whalley L, McDonald B, Pieber S, Prévôt A, Alam MS, Krishna Kumar N, Wahner A, Skouloudis A, Kalberer M, Wallington T, Dunmore R Chemical complexity of the urban atmosphere and its consequences: general discussion Faraday Discussions 189 137-167, 2016

Pope F, Monks PS, Kleffmann J, Tomlin A, Whalley L, Heard D, Rickard A, Bloss W, Harrison R, Madronich S, McFiggans G, Donahue NM, Molteni U, Wahner A, Brune W, Querol X, Hou S, Tong S, Kim S Timescales of mixing and of chemistry: general discussion. Faraday Discussions 189 253-276, 2016

Lakey PSJ, George IJ, Baeza-Romero MT, Whalley LK, Heard DE Organics Substantially Reduce HO2Uptake onto Aerosols Containing Transition Metal ions Journal of Physical Chemistry A 120 1421-1430, 2016
View abstract

Lee JD, Whalley LK, Heard DE, Stone D, Dunmore RE, Hamilton JF, Young DE, Allan JD, Laufs S, Kleffmann J Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 2747-2764, 2016
View abstract

Whalley LK, Stone D, Bandy B, Dunmore R, Hamilton JF, Hopkins J, Lee JD, Lewis AC, Heard DE Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: Observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 2109-2122, 2016
View abstract

Malkin TL, Heard DE, Hood C, Stocker J, Carruthers D, Mackenzie IA, Doherty RM, Vieno M, Lee J, Kleffmann J, Laufs S, Whalley LK Assessing chemistry schemes and constraints in air quality models used to predict ozone in London against the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism Faraday Discussions 189 589-616, 2016
View abstract

Crilley LR, Kramer L, Pope FD, Whalley LK, Cryer DR, Heard DE, Lee JD, Reed C, Bloss WJ On the interpretation of: In situ HONO observations via photochemical steady state Faraday Discussions 189 191-212, 2016
View abstract

Dunmore RE, Whalley LK, Sherwen T, Evans MJ, Heard DE, Hopkins JR, Lee JD, Lewis AC, Lidster RT, Rickard AR, Hamilton JF Atmospheric ethanol in London and the potential impacts of future fuel formulations Faraday Discussions 189 105-120, 2016
View abstract

Whalley LK, Stone D, George IJ, Mertes S, Van Pinxteren D, Tilgner A, Herrmann H, Evans MJ, Heard DE The influence of clouds on radical concentrations: Observations and modelling studies of HOx during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia (HCCT) campaign in 2010 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15 3289-3301, 2015
View abstract

Bannan TJ, Murray Booth A, Bacak A, Muller JBA, Leather KE, Le Breton M, Jones B, Young D, Coe H, Allan J, Visser S, Slowik JG, Furger M, Prévôt ASH, Lee J, Dunmore RE, Hopkins JR, Hamilton JF, Lewis AC, Whalley LK, Sharp T, Stone D, Heard DE, Fleming ZL, Leigh R, Shallcross DE, Percival CJ The first UK measurements of nitryl chloride using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer in central London in the summer of 2012, and an investigation of the role of Cl atom oxidation Journal of Geophysical Research 120 5638-5657, 2015
View abstract

Bohnenstengel SI, Belcher SE, Aiken A, Allan JD, Allen G, Bacak A, Bannan TJ, Barlow JF, Beddddows DCS, Blossss WJ, Booth AM, Chemel C, Coceal O, Di Marco CF, Dubey MK, Faloon KH, Flemiming ZL, Furger M, Gietl JK, Graves RR, Green DC, Grimmimmimmond CSB, Halios CH, Hamiamiamilton JF, Harrisison RM, Heal MR, Heard DE, Helfter C, Herndon SC, Holmes RE, Hopkins JR, Jones AM, Kelly FJ, Kotthaus S, Langford B, Lee JD, Leigh RJ, Lewisis AC, Lidsidsidster RT, Lopez-Hilfiker FD, McQuaidaid JB, Mohr C, Monks PS, Nemimitz E, Ng NL, Percival CJ, Prévôt ASH, Ricketts HMA, Sokhi R, Stone D, Thornton JA, Tremper AH, Valach AC, Vissississer S, Whalley LK, Williamsiamsiamsiams LR, Xu L, Young DE, Zotter P Meteorology, air quality, and health in London: The ClearfLo project Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96 779-804, 2015
View abstract

Lakey PSJ, George IJ, Whalley LK, Baeza-Romero MT, Heard DE Measurements of the HO<inf>2</inf> uptake coefficients onto single component organic aerosols Environmental Science and Technology 49 4878-4885, 2015
View abstract

Whalley LK, Stone D, Bandy B, Dunmore R, Hamilton JF, Hopkins J, Lee JD, Lewis AC, Heard DE Atmospheric OH reactivity in central London: observations, model predictions and estimates of in situ ozone production Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 15 31247-31286, 2015

Matthews PSJ, Baeza-Romero MT, Whalley LK, Heard DE Uptake of HO2radicals onto Arizona test dust particles using an aerosol flow tube Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14 7397-7408, 2014
View abstract

Fittschen C, Whalley LK, Heard DE The reaction of CH3O2 radicals with OH radicals: a neglected sink for CH3O2 in the remote atmosphere. Environ Sci Technol 48 7700-7701, 2014

Whalley L, Stone D, Heard D New insights into the tropospheric oxidation of isoprene: combining field measurements, laboratory studies, chemical modelling and quantum theory. Top Curr Chem 339 55-95, 2014
View abstract

Whalley LK, Blitz MA, Desservettaz M, Seakins PW, Heard DE Reporting the sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence instruments used for HO2 detection to an interference from RO2 radicals and introducing a novel approach that enables HO2 and certain RO2 types to be selectively measured Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6 3425-3440, 2013
View abstract

Edwards PM, Evans MJ, Furneaux KL, Hopkins J, Ingham T, Jones C, Lee JD, Lewis AC, Moller SJ, Stone D, Whalley LK, Heard DE OH reactivity in a South East Asian tropical rainforest during the oxidant and particle photochemical processes (OP3) project Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 9497-9514, 2013
View abstract

Warwick NJ, Archibald AT, Ashworth K, Dorsey J, Edwards PM, Heard DE, Langford B, Lee J, Misztal PK, Whalley LK, Pyle JA A global model study of the impact of land-use change in Borneo on atmospheric composition Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 9183-9194, 2013
View abstract

George IJ, Matthews PSJ, Whalley LK, Brooks B, Goddard A, Baeza-Romero MT, Heard DE Measurements of uptake coefficients for heterogeneous loss of HO2 onto submicron inorganic salt aerosols. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15 12829-12845, 2013
View abstract

Platt SM, El Haddad I, Zardini AA, Clairotte M, Astorga C, Wolf R, Slowik JG, Temime-Roussel B, Marchand N, Jezek I, Drinovec L, Mocnik G, Moehler O, Richter R, Barmet P, Bianchi F, Baltensperger U, Prevot ASH Secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline vehicle emissions in a new mobile environmental reaction chamber ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 13 9141-9158, 2013

Stone D, Whalley LK, Heard DE Tropospheric OH and HO2 radicals: field measurements and model comparisons. Chem Soc Rev 41 6348-6404, 2012
View abstract

MacDonald SM, Oetjen H, Mahajan AS, Whalley LK, Edwards PM, Heard DE, Jones CE, Plane JMC DOAS measurements of formaldehyde and glyoxal above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12 5949-5962, 2012
View abstract

Vaughan S, Ingham T, Whalley LK, Stone D, Evans MJ, Read KA, Lee JD, Moller SJ, Carpenter LJ, Lewis AC, Fleming ZL, Heard DE Seasonal observations of OH and HO2 in the remote tropical marine boundary layer ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 12 2149-2172, 2012

MacKenzie AR, Langford B, Pugh TAM, Robinson N, Misztal PK, Heard DE, Lee JD, Lewis AC, Jones CE, Hopkins JR, Phillips G, Monks PS, Karunaharan A, Hornsby KE, Nicolas-Perea V, Coe H, Gabey AM, Gallagher MW, Whalley LK, Edwards PM, Evans MJ, Stone D, Ingham T, Commane R, Furneaux KL, McQuaid JB, Nemitz E, Seng YK, Fowler D, Pyle JA, Hewitt CN The atmospheric chemistry of trace gases and particulate matter emitted by different land uses in Borneo. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366 3177-3195, 2011
View abstract

Archibald AT, Levine JG, Abraham NL, Cooke MC, Edwards PM, Heard DE, Jenkin ME, Karunaharan A, Pike RC, Monks PS, Shallcross DE, Telford PJ, Whalley LK, Pyle JA Impacts of HOx regeneration and recycling in the oxidation of isoprene: Consequences for the composition of past, present and future atmospheres GEOPHYS RES LETT 38 -, 2011

Whalley LK, Edwards PM, Furneaux KL, Goddard A, Ingham T, Evans MJ, Stone D, Hopkins JR, Jones CE, Karunaharan A, Lee JD, Lewis AC, Monks PS, Moller SJ, Heard DE Quantifying the magnitude of a missing hydroxyl radical source in a tropical rainforest ATMOS CHEM PHYS 11 7223-7233, 2011

Mahajan AS, Whalley LK, Oetjen H, Furneaux KL, Goddard A, Heard DE, Plane JMC, Saiz-Lopez A, Kozlova E, Mendez L DOAS observations of formaldehyde and its impact on the HO balance in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layer Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 1-12, 2011
View abstract

Carpenter LJ, Fleming ZL, Read KA, Lee JD, Moller SJ, Hopkins JR, Purvis RM, Lewis AC, Mueller K, Heinold B, Herrmann H, Fomba KW, van Pinxteren D, Mueller C, Tegen I, Wiedensohler A, Mueller T, Niedermeier N, Achterberg EP, Patey MD, Kozlova EA, Heimann M, Heard DE, Plane JMC, Mahajan A, Oetjen H, Ingham T, Stone D, Whalley LK, Evans MJ, Pilling MJ, Leigh RJ, Monks PS, Karunaharan A, Vaughan S, Arnold SR, Tschritter J, Poehler D, Friess U, Holla R, Mendes LM, Lopez H, Faria B, Manning AJ, Wallace DWR Seasonal characteristics of tropical marine boundary layer air measured at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY 67 87-140, 2010

Mahajan AS, Whalley LK, Kozlova E, Oetjen H, Mendez L, Furneaux KL, Goddard A, Heard DE, Plane JMC, Saiz-Lopez A DOAS observations of formaldehyde and its impact on the HOx balance in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layer J ATMOS CHEM 66 167-178, 2010

Pugh TAM, MacKenzie AR, Hewitt CN, Langford B, Edwards PM, Furneaux KL, Heard DE, Hopkins JR, Jones CE, Karunaharan A, Lee J, Mills G, Misztal P, Moller S, Monks PS, Whalley LK Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model ATMOS CHEM PHYS 10 279-298, 2010

Furneaux KL, Whalley LK, Heard DE, Atkinson HM, Bloss WJ, Flynn MJ, Gallagher MW, Ingham T, Kramer L, Lee JD, Leigh R, McFiggans GB, Mahajan AS, Monks PS, Oetjen H, Plane JMC, Whitehead JD Measurements of iodine monoxide at a semi polluted coastal location ATMOS CHEM PHYS 10 3645-3663, 2010

Whalley LK, Furneaux KL, Goddard A, Lee JD, Mahajan A, Oetjen H, Read KA, Kaaden N, Carpenter LJ, Lewis AC, Plane JMC, Saltzman ES, Wiedensohler A, Heard DE The chemistry of OH and HO2 radicals in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean ATMOS CHEM PHYS 10 1555-1576, 2010

McFiggans G, Bale CSE, Ball SM, Beames JM, Bloss WJ, Carpenter LJ, Dorsey J, Dunk R, Flynn MJ, Furneaux KL, Gallagher MW, Heard DE, Hollingsworth AM, Hornsby K, Ingham T, Jones CE, Jones RL, Kramer LJ, Langridge JM, Leblanc C, LeCrane JP, Lee JD, Leigh RJ, Longley I, Mahajan AS, Monks PS, Oetjen H, Orr-Ewing AJ, Plane JMC, Potin P, Shillings AJL, Thomas F, von Glasow R, Wada R, Whalley LK, Whitehead JD Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) Roscoff coastal study ATMOS CHEM PHYS 10 2975-2999, 2010

Hewitt CN, Lee JD, MacKenzie AR, Barkley MP, Carslaw N, Carver GD, Chappell NA, Coe H, Collier C, Commane R, Davies F, Davison B, Di Carlo P, Di Marco CF, Dorsey JR, Edwards PM, Evans MJ, Fowler D, Furneaux KL, Gallagher M, Guenther A, Heard DE, Helfter C, Hopkins J, Ingham T, Irwin M, Jones C, Karunaharan A, Langford B, Lewis AC, Lim SF, MacDonald SM, Mahajan AS, Malpass S, McFiggans G, Mills G, Misztal P, Moller S, Monks PS, Nemitz E, Nicolas-Perea V, Oetjen H, Oram DE, Palmer PI, Phillips GJ, Pike R, Plane JMC, Pugh T, Pyle JA, Reeves CE, Robinson NH, Stewart D, Stone D, Whalley LK, Yin X Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project): introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools ATMOS CHEM PHYS 10 169-199, 2010

Lee JD, McFiggans G, Allan JD, Baker AR, Ball SM, Benton AK, Carpenter LJ, Commane R, Finley BD, Evans M, Fuentes E, Furneaux K, Goddard A, Good N, Hamilton JF, Heard DE, Herrmann H, Hollingsworth A, Hopkins JR, Ingham T, Irwin M, Jones CE, Jones RL, Keene WC, Lawler MJ, Lehmann S, Lewis AC, Long MS, Mahajan A, Methven J, Moller SJ, Muller K, Muller T, Niedermeier N, O'Doherty S, Oetjen H, Plane JMC, Pszenny AAP, Read KA, Saiz-Lopez A, Saltzman ES, Sander R, von Glasow R, Whalley L, Wiedensohler A, Young D Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe): the tropical North Atlantic experiments ATMOS CHEM PHYS 10 1031-1055, 2010

Ingham T, Goddard A, Whalley LK, Furneaux KL, Edwards PM, Seal CP, Self DE, Johnson GP, Read KA, Lee JD, Heard DE A flow-tube based laser-induced fluorescence instrument to measure OH reactivity in the troposphere ATMOS MEAS TECH 2 465-477, 2009

Whalley LK, Furneaux KL, Gravestock T, Atkinson HM, Bale C, Ingham T, Bloss WJ, Heard DE Detection of iodine monoxide radicals in the marine broundary layer using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 58 19-39, 2007

Cook PA, Savage NH, Turquety S, Carver GD, O'Connor FM, Heckel A, Stewart D, Whalley LK, Parker AE, Schlager H, Singh HB, Avery MA, Sachse GW, Brune W, Richter A, Burrows JP, Purvis R, Lewis AC, Reeves CE, Monks PS, Levine JG, Pyle JA Forest fire plumes over the North Atlantic: p-TOMCAT model simulations with aircraft and satellite measurements from the ITOP/ICARTT campaign J GEOPHYS RES-ATMOS 112 -, 2007

Lewis AC, Evans MJ, Methven J, Watson N, Lee JD, Hopkins JR, Purvis RM, Arnold SR, McQuaid JB, Whalley LK, Pilling MJ, Heard DE, Monks PS, Parker A, Reeves CE, Oram DE, Mills G, Bandy BJ, Coe H Chemical composition observed over the mid-Atlantic and the detection of pollution signatures far from source regions Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 112 pp.D10S38-, 2007
View abstract

Methven J, Arnold SR, Stohl A, Evans MJ, Avery M, Law K, Lewis AC, Monks PS, Parrish DD, Reeves CE, Schlager H, Atlas E, Blake DR, Coe H, Crosier J, Flocke FM, Holloway JS, Hopkins JR, McQuaid J, Purvis R, Rappengluck B, Singh HB, Watson NM, Whalley LK, Williams PI Establishing Lagrangian connections between observations within air masses crossing the Atlantic during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation experiment J GEOPHYS RES-ATMOS 111 -, 2006

Lee JDL, Lewis AC, Monks PS, Jacob M, Hamilton JF, Hopkins JR, Watson N, Saxton J, Ennis C, Carpenter LJ, Carslaw N, Fleming ZL, Bandy BJ, Oram DE, Penkett SA, Slemr J, Norton E, Rickard AR, Whalley LK, Heard DE, Bloss W, Gravestock T, Smith S, Stanton J, Pilling MJ, Jenkin ME, Bower K, Coe H, Cryer D, Emmerson KM, Gallagher M, Ingham T, Johnson D, Johnson G, McFiggans G, McQuaid JB, Mills G, Seakins PW, Utembe S, Vaughan G Ozone photochemistry and elevated isoprene during the U.K. heat wave of August 2003 Atmospheric Environment 40 7598-7613, 2006

Whalley LK, Lewis AC, McQuaid JB, Purvis RM, Lee JD, Stemmler K, Zelleger C, Ridgeon P Two high-speed, portable GC systems designed for the measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons and PAN: Results from the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Observatory Journal of Environmental Monitoring 6 234-241, 2004

Whalley LK, Purvis RM, Lewis AC, McQuaid JB Non-methane Hydrocarbons Distributions over the UK using an Aircraft Platform European Geophysical Union , 2003

Lewis AC, Hopkins JR, McQuaid JB, Whalley LK, Purvis RM, Carney RA GC Methods for Measuring Volatile Organic Compounds in the Upper Atmosphere CAST: Chromatography and Separation Technology 10-15, 2002