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Terry Kee

Reader
Member of the Atmospheric and Planetary Chemistry group

Contact details

Room: 1.08
Tel: +44 (0)113 3436421
Email: T.P.Kee@leeds.ac.uk

Keywords

Phosphorus Chemistry
Abiogenesis
Astrobiology



Photograph of Terry Kee

Research interests

Phospho-Transfer Chemistry

The primary interest in our laboratory concerns the role of phosphorus (P) in abiogenesis, the origins of life on earth. Phosphorus is central to contemporary biochemistry (e.g. in DNA, RNA, cell membranes, ATP) but significant problems remain as to how Nature could have incorporated P into the earliest forms of life on earth.

We are exploring the emergence of P-driven biochemistry with specific focus on how proto-bioenergetics could have evolved to exploit condensed polyphosphates such as ATP. ATP is a ubiquitous biological energy currency in modern metabolism but recent experiments in our lab have shown that simpler phosphorus chemicals, resulting from the anaerobic corrosion of meteorites may have been available and functional ancestors as an energy currency to kick-start the first coupled chemical cycles and perhaps even cell formation on the early earth.

Our work is highly collaborative and cross-disciplinary incorporating studies in meteoritics, corrosion electrochemistry, systems chemistry, bioenergetics, membrane science, computational modelling and high-energy geochemistry.

Useful links

A selection of research topics (MS Word)   
   
   

Publications

Barge LM; Kee TP; Doloboff IJ; Hampton JM; Ismail M; Pourkashanian M; Zeytounian J; Baum MM; Moss JA; Lin CK; Kidd RD; Kanik I The fuel cell model of abiogenesis: a new approach to origin-of-life simulations. Astrobiology 14 254-270, 2014
DOI:10.1089/ast.2014.1140
View abstract

Kee TP; Bryant DE; Herschy B; Marriott KER; Cosgrove NE; Pasek MA; Atlas ZD; Cousins CR Phosphate activation via reduced oxidation state phosphorus (P). Mild routes to condensed-P energy currency molecules Life 3 386-402, 2013
DOI:10.3390/life3030386
View abstract

Bryant DE; Greenfield D; Walshaw RD; Johnson BRG; Herschy B; Smith C; Pasek MA; Telford R; Scowen I; Munshi T; Edwards HGM; Cousins CR; Crawford IA; Kee TP Hydrothermal modification of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite under low pH geothermal environments. A plausibly prebiotic route to activated phosphorus on the early Earth Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 109 90-112, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2012.12.043
View abstract

Cousins CR; Crawford IA; Carrivick JL; Gunn M; Harris J; Kee TP; Karlsson M; Carmody L; Cockell C; Herschy B; Joy KH Glaciovolcanic hydrothermal environments in Iceland and implications for their detection on Mars Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 256 61-77, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.02.009
View abstract

Kee TP; Pasek MA On the Origin of Phosphorylated Biomolecules In Origins of Life , 2011
View abstract

Kee TP; Burchell MJ; Waltham DA The Astrobiology Society of Britain ASTRON GEOPHYS 52 29-29, 2011

Bryant DE; Marriott KER; Greenfield D; Macgregor SA; Smith C; Pasek MA; Kee TP The Rise of Chemical Complexity from Meteorite Sources Implications for Origin-of-Life Studies ORIGINS LIFE EVOL B 40 513-514, 2010

Marriott KER; Bryant DE; Bullough E; Wang L; Macgregor SA; Kee TP Chemical Complexity in the H3PO2 Pyruvate System-Implications for Abiogenesis ORIGINS LIFE EVOL B 40 519-520, 2010

Gledhill AC; Cosgrove NE; Nixon TD; Kilner CA; Fisher J; Kee TP Asymmetric general base catalysis of the phospho-aldol reaction via dimeric aluminium hydroxides. Dalton Trans 39 9472-9475, 2010
DOI:10.1039/c0dt00459f
View abstract

Carter EA; Pasek MA; Smith T; Kee TP; Hines P; Edwards HGM Rapid Raman mapping of a fulgurite ANAL BIOANAL CHEM 397 2647-2658, 2010
DOI:10.1007/s00216-010-3593-z

Carter EA; Hargreaves MD; Kee TP; Pasek MA; Edwards HGM A Raman spectroscopic study of a fulgurite PHILOS T R SOC A 368 3087-3097, 2010
DOI:10.1098/rsta.2010.0022

Bryant DE; Marriott KE; Macgregor SA; Kilner C; Pasek MA; Kee TP On the prebiotic potential of reduced oxidation state phosphorus: the H-phosphinate-pyruvate system. Chem Commun (Camb) 46 3726-3728, 2010
DOI:10.1039/c002689a
View abstract

Pasek MA; Kee TP GEOC 12-Phosphorus cosmochemistry from the ISM to the early Earth. ABSTR PAP AM CHEM S 238 -, 2009

Kee TP; Gronstal AL; Pearson VK; Kappler A; Dooris C; Anand M; Poitrasson F; Cockell CS Laboratory experiments on the weathering of iron meteorites and carbonaceous chondrites by iron-oxidising bacteria, 2009

Gronstal A; Pearson V; Kappler A; Dooris C; Anand M; Poitrasson F; Kee TP; Cockell CS Laboratory experiments on the weathering of iron meteorites and carbonaceous chondrites by iron-oxidizing bacteria METEORIT PLANET SCI 44 233-247, 2009

Bryant DE; Kilner C; Kee TP Facile one-pot mono-dealkylation of H-phosphonate esters in high yield INORG CHIM ACTA 362 614-616, 2009
DOI:10.1016/j.ica.2008.04.028

Bryant DE; Greenfield D; Walshaw RD; Evans SM; Nimmo AE; Smith CL; Wang LM; Pasek MA; Kee TP Electrochemical studies of iron meteorites: phosphorus redox chemistry on the early Earth, 2009
DOI:10.1017/S1473550408004345

Kee TP; Bryant DE; Greenfield D; Walshaw RD; Evans SM; Nimmo AE; Smith CL; Wang L; Pasek MA Electrochemical studies of iron meteorites: phosphorus redox chemistry on the early Earth International Journal of Astrobiology 8 27-36, 2009
DOI:10.1017/S1473550408004345
View abstract

Pasek MA; Kee TP; Bryant DE; Lauretta DS; Melosh HJ; Pavlov AA; Lunine JI Phosphorus redox chemistry on the early Earth: Clues to biochemistry, 2008

Kota Z; Pali T; Dixon N; Kee TP; Harrison MA; Findlay JBC; Finbow ME; Marsh D Incorporation of transmembrane peptides from the vacuolar H+-ATPase in phospholipid membranes: Spin-label electron paramagnetic resonance and polarized infrared spectroscopy BIOCHEMISTRY-US 47 3937-3949, 2008
DOI:10.1021/bi7025112

Pasek MA; Kee TP; Lunine JI Oxidative pathways of reduced phosphorus compounds: a primary source of condensed phosphates on the early Earth INT J ASTROBIOL 7 66-66, 2008

Bryant DE; Gorrell IB; Greenfield D; Evans SM; Wang L; Heard DE; Blitz MA; Goddard A; Smith C; Pasek MA; Kee TP Phosphorus redox chemistry in planetary environments: implications for the origins of life INT J ASTROBIOL 7 66-67, 2008

Dixon N; Pali T; Kee T; Ball SK; Harrison MA; Findlay JBC; Nyman J; Vaananen K; Finbow ME; Marsh D Interaction of spin-labelled inhibitors of the vacuolar H+-ATPase with the transmembrane Vo-sector Biophysical Journal 94 506-514, 2008
DOI:10.1529/biophysj.107.111781

Dixon N; Pali T; Kee TP; Ball S; Harrison MA; Findlay JBC; Nyman J; Vaananen K; Finbow ME; Marsh D Interaction of spin-labeled inhibitors of the vacuolar H+ATPase with the transmembrane V-o-sector Biophysical Journal 94 506-514, 2008

Pasek MA; Kee TP; Bryant DE; Pavlov AA; Lunine JI Production of potentially prebiotic condensed phosphates by phosphorus redox chemistry ANGEW CHEM INT EDIT 47 7918-7920, 2008
DOI:10.1002/anie.200802145

Gorrell IB; Kee TP Arylphosphonic acids and Derivatives In Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformation , 2007

Fernandes F; Loura LMS; Fedorov A; Dixon N; Kee TP; Prieto M; Hemminga MA Binding assays of inhibitors towards selected V-ATPase domains BBA-BIOMEMBRANES 1758 1777-1786, 2006
DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2006.07.006

Bryant DE; Kee TP Direct evidence for the availability of reactive, water soluble phosphorus on the early Earth. H-phosphinic acid from the Nantan meteorite. Chem Commun (Camb) 2344-2346, 2006
DOI:10.1039/b602651f
View abstract

Fernandes F; Loura L; Koehorst RBM; Dixon N; Kee TP; Hemminga MA; Prieto M Interaction of the indole class of vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitors with lipid bilayers Biochemistry 45 5271-5279, 2006

Gorrell IB; Wang LM; Marks AJ; Bryant DE; Bouillot F; Goddard A; Heard DE; Kee TP On the origin of the Murchison meteorite phosphonates. Implications for pre-biotic chemistry Chemical Communications 15 1643-1645, 2006
DOI:10.1039/b517497j

Gorrell IB; Wang LM; Marks AJ; Bryant DE; Bouillot F; Goddard A; Heard DE; Kee TP On the origin of the Murchison meteorite phosphonates. Implications for pre-biotic chemistry CHEM COMMUN 1643-1645, 2006

Whyteside G; Meek PJ; Ball SK; Dixon N; Finbow ME; Kee TP; Findlay JBC; Harrison MA Concanamycin and Indolyl Pentadieneamide Inhibitors of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase Bind with High Affinity to the Purified Proteolipid Subunit of the Membrane Domain Biochemistry 44 15024-15031, 2005
DOI:10.1021/bi051529h

Pali T; Whyteside G; Dixon N; Kee TP; Ball S; Harrison MA; Findlay JBC; Finbow ME; Marsh D Interaction of inhibitors of the vacuolar H+-ATPase with the transmembrane V-o-sector BIOCHEMISTRY-US 43 12297-12305, 2004
DOI:10.1021/bi0493867

Nixon T; Dalgamo S; Ward C; Jiang M; Halcrow MA; Kilner CA; Thornton-Pett MA; Kee TP Stereocontrol in asymmetric phospho-aldol catalysis. Chirality relaying in action Comptes Rendus Chimie 7 809-821, 2004
DOI:10.1016/j.crci.2003.10.020

Pali T; Dixon N; Kee TP; Marsh D Incorporation of the V-ATPase inhibitors concanamycin and indole pentadiene in lipid membranes. Spin-label EPR studies Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1663 14-18, 2004

Davies SR; Cain CP; Glossop MT; Mengent ML; Kee TP Synthesis of C-2-symmetric 2,2 '-bipyridines dervied from 4 - substituted 1, 10, 10-trimethyl-3-oxa-5-aza- tricyclo 5.2.1.0(2,6) decane Synthetic Communications 34 1191-1197, 2004
DOI:10.1081/SCC-120030305

Dixon N; Pali T; Kee TP; Marsh D Spin-labelled vacuotar-ATPase inhibitors in lipid membranes Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1665 177-183, 2004

Davies SR; Cain CP; Glossop MT; Mengent ML; Kee TP Synthesis of C2-Symmetric, 2,2'-Bipyridines Derived from 4-Substituted 1,10,10-Trimethyl-3-oxa-5-aza-tricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]decane Synthetic Communications 34 1191-1197, 2004
DOI:10.1081/SCC-120030305

Davis A; Kilner CA; Kee TP Complexes containing the (R,R)-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-3-functionalised-benzylidene)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane ligand: synthesis and X-ray analyses of titanium chloro and oxo derivatives Inorganica Chimica Acta 357 3493-2502, 2004
DOI:10.1016/j.ica.2004.01.048

Whitnall MR; Thornton-Pett M; Kee TP [1-[2-(bis{2+1-phenylethylimino)methyl]phenyl]phosphinoyl)pheny1}meth-[E]-ylidene]-(1-phenylethyl)amine. Synthesis, X-ray and conformational dynamic analysis INORG CHIM ACTA 355 95-102, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S00200-1693(03)00299-8

Whitnall MR; Thornton-Pett MA; Kee TP 1- 2-(bis{2+1- phenylethylimino)methyl phenyl phosphinoyl)pheny1}meth- E -ylidene -(1-phenylethyl)amine. Synthesis, X-ray and conformational dynamic analysis Inorganica Chimica Acta 355 95-102, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0020-1693(03)00299-8

Bryant DE; Stewart DI; Kee TP; Barton CS Development of a functionalized polymer-coated silica for the removal of uranium from groundwater. Environ Sci Technol 37 4011-4016, 2003
View abstract

Cain MJ; Cawley A; Sum V; Brown D; Thornton-Pett MA; Kee TP Stereoselective redox transformation of phosphorus heterocycles. Stereocontrol in the asymmetric phospho-mukaiyama aldol reaction Inorganica Chimica Acta 345 154-172, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0020-1693(02)01286-0

Whitnall MR; Thornton-Pett MA; Kee TP [1-[2-(bis-{2-[(1phenylethylimino)methyl]phenyl}phospinoyl)phenyl]meth-[E]-ylidene]-(1-phenylethyl)amine. Synthesis, X-ray and conformational dynamic analysis Inorganica Chimica Acta 355 95-102, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0020-1693(03)00299-8

Dixon N; Pali T; Ball S; Harrison MA; Marsh D; Findlay JBC; Kee TP New biophysical probes for structure-activity analyses of vacuolar-H+-ATPase enzymes ORG BIOMOL CHEM 1 4361-4363, 2003
DOI:10.1039/b311401e

Bugnet EA; Nixon T; Kilner CA; Greatrex R; Kee TP Regioselective supramolecular catalysis. Exploiting multiple binding motifs in propanediurea molecular clips Tetrahedron Letters 44 5491-5494, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0040-4039(03)01259-0

Renard SL; Kee TP Electronic effects on the acidity of phosphorus(III) triflates J ORGANOMET CHEM 643 516-521, 2002

Renard SL; Fisher J; Kilner CA; Thornton-Pett M; Kee TP On the mechanisms of degenerate halogen exchange in phosphorus(III) halides J CHEM SOC DALTON 2921-2932, 2002
DOI:10.1039/b202942c

Bugnet EA; Brough AR; Greatrex R; Kee TP On the para-selective chlorination of ortho-cresol Tetrahedron 58 8059-8065, 2002
DOI:10.1016/S0040-4020(02)00996-1

Kee TP; Dixon N Living dangerously Chemistry in Britain 37 38-41, 2001

Jiang ML; Dalgarno S; Kilner CA; Halcrow MA; Kee TP Chiral bis(oxazoline) complexes. Synthesis, structure and applications in catalytic phospho-transfer POLYHEDRON 20 2151-2162, 2001

Kee TP Writing and presenting scientific papers Chemistry in Britain 37 59-59, 2001

Kee TP; McGowan PC Sticks and stones may break my bones Education in Chemistry 38 72-74, 2001

Kee TP; Harrison MA Osteoporosis - The enemy within Education in Chemistry 38 15-16, 2001

Kee TP Phospholames and phospholemes In "Phosphorus-carbon heterocyclic chemistry" The rise of a new domain , 2001

Duxbury J; Warne J; Mushtaq R; Ward C; Thornton-Pett MA; Jiang M; Greatrex R; Kee TP Phospho-Aldol catalysis via chiral Schiff base complexes of aluminum Organometallics 19 4445-4457, 2000

Brown D; Cawley A; Duxbury JP; Greatrex R; Kee TP; Thornton-Pett MA; Wantz L; Warne JND Chiral aluminium complexes as phospho-transfer catalysts. Tetrahedron Letters 40 4403-4406, 1999

Davies SR; Mitchell MC; Cain CP; Devitt PG; Taylor RJ; Kee TP Phospho-transfer catalysis. On the asymmetric hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 550 29-57, 1998

Jones VA; Sriprang S; Thornton-Pett MA; Kee TP Chiral phosphorus(III) triflates. On the nature of the phosphorus-oxygen interaction. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 567 199-218, 1998

Whitnall MR; Hii KK; Thornton-Pett MA; Kee TP Conformational diastereoisomerism intris-(2-alkylimino)triphenylphosphines. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 529 35-50, 1997